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[Discusses the development of medieval commentary about women’s preaching, some of which are contradictory, and how this influences depictions in saint’s lives and by Wycliffites.] Block, Edward A. “The Issue of Theological Style in Late Medieval Disputations.” 5 (2002): 1-21. Of special interest here is a chapter on the , he provocatively follows a line of reasoning instanced in multiple Wycliffite tracts on translation. Drawing on pedagogical theorists such as Freire and Giroux as well as a wealth of later medieval texts, Copeland shows how teachers radically transformed inherited ideas about classrooms and pedagogy as they brought their teaching to adult learners. “John Wyclif on Papal Election, Correction, and Deposition.” 69 (2007): 141-85. Because Holy Scripture formed, for Wyclif, the sole foundation of Christian society, it would fall to the magister sacrae paginae to render authoritative decisions on ecclesiastical governance” (141-42). Wyclif exercised his rights as a university master to dissent from ecclesiastical determinations that ran contrary to the truth as revealed in Scripture. “A Manuscript of the First Wycliffite Translation of the Bible.” . The English reformers, however, did more than merely reject Gregory as an authority. Peikola examines one form of tract, the catalogue, listing 22 different catalogues, discussing their structure, lexical markings, types, audiences, and their similarities to scholastic, judicial, and legislative textual practices. The major part of the article surveys variation in the form and content of the tables, serving the needs of genre description and paving the way for further textual scholarship (a preliminary list of the Wycliffite tables is presented in Appendix A). [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death. The volume includes a helpful index of “Churchwardens’ accounts before 1570.”] Peterson, Kate Oelzner. “Sowing Difficulty: The Parson’s Tale, Vernacular Commentary, and The Nature of Chaucerian Dissent.” 25 (2004): 299-330. Price and Ryrie attend to both stylistic and political arguments that arose over Biblical translation between the late fourteenth and early seventeenth centuries.] Pyper, Rachel. [Concludes that Chaucer uses the Wycliffite translation, but see also Holton, “Which Bible did Chaucer Use? When all the information on the movement which we possess, however, is brought together, one cannot but feel that they had a greater influence on their own time than has heretofore been allowed: Not only did the early reformers consider them very important, but today also, in spite of predilections for economic interpretations of history, they must be regarded as one of the important sources of the Scottish Reformation.”] Renna, Thomas. It contains chapters on “Wyclif and his Theology,” the “Early diffusion of Lollardy,” “Survival and Revival,” and “From Lollardy to Protestantism.” In the process, “whilst endorsing the traditional view that Lollardy was indeed the lay face of Wycliffism, . Far from being a Lollard minister, it suggests, Ramsbury was nothing but a confidence trickster.

Wimpheling’s sensitivity regarding the persuasive value of dialectic is complemented by passages in Erasmus which emphasise continuity rather than conflict between the methods of argumentation used by patristic and medieval theologians in their encounters with heresy.] —. as Disputation.” Bergström-Allen and Copsey 233-448. [Noting that Netter follows a “pioneering approach” to commentary that relies on contextualizing patristic authorities, Bose also says that Netter “implicitly invites readers to check and appraise, rather than merely to simply endorse, his use of sources,” and thereby lays “the foundations of a more radical critical inquiry” (234). The fifth chapter studies Pecock’s views on the best way to educate the lay reader to ensure the most stability, spiritual profit, and harmony within the community, focusing on the way Pecock structures his works to facilitate the integration of various groups in the community through the progress and evolution of the lay reader.”] Campbell, Kirsty. Campbell’s book will be of interest to scholars and students of medieval literature and culture, especially those interested in fifteenth-century religious history and culture.”] Campi, Luigi. His doing so was a necessity: after all, if the surviving MSS are any indication, his 17 (2003): 25-54. [The essay describes a shift in the fifteenth century from the pastoral to the secular in the advice offered to bishops, creating “what might be called in some instances a ‘mirror for bishops’ tradition.” Cole addresses Wycliffite advice literature, claiming that it combines pastoral and secular advice traditions. It explores the sacrament of baptism and its association to orthodoxy, Wycliffism and sacramental utterance. “A Contextualized Wyclif: Magister Sacrae Paginae.” Bose and Hornbeck 121-134. Nissé focuses in particular on how theater translates the temporal ideas of textual exegesis into spatial models and politics. Binghamton: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1986. “The Chronology of Wyclif’s English Sermons.” 40 (2009): 387-410.

This bibliography is intended to embrace all fields relevant to Lollard studies. Swinderby’s links with early Wycliffism are elucidated and the relationship between Wycliffism and the Church is looked at in a new light.”] —. [Fudge examines the ideas rather than the history of the Hussite movement, arguing that it is the “First Reformation,” distinct from the movements begun by Wyclif or Luther, in order to “close the gap between a history of ideas and social history” (3).] —. [Observing that scholarship on Lollard texts – even from literary scholars – focuses almost exclusively on cultural and theological content rather than aesthetics, Gayk argues for more attention to the form of Lollard writings. “Ecclesiastics and Political Theory in Late Medieval England: The End of a Monopoly.” Dobson 23-44. “The Dissemination of Manuscripts Relating to English Political Thought in the Fourteenth Century.” . [From the publisher: “This book charts the emergence of women’s writing from the procedures of heresy trials and recovers a tradition of women’s trial narratives from the late Middle Ages to the seventeenth century. At the center of Wyclif’s theology there is always a Living Person.] —. She traces the story of the literature of complaint from the earliest written bills and their links with early complaint poems in English, French, and Latin, through writings associated with political crises of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, to the libels and petitionary pamphlets of Reformation England. His heresy was assumed to be not simply a dereliction of his duties towards his church, but a dereliction of the demands of his class” (56).] Schaff, D. [“The purpose of this brief note is to suggest that the influence of the English religious reformer Wycliffe might be discerned in the First Lithuanian Catechism. [According to Shagan, “This study of popular responses to the English Reformation analyzes how ordinary people received, interpreted, debated, and responded to religious change. [This is a preliminary study of the Acta of Jerome’s trial, which is “the only source for learning about the Reformist activities not only of this Wycliffite, but also of his radical circle in the years 1409-14” (324), of which there seem to exist separate collections. According to the author’s abstract, “This paper attempts a preliminary assessment of that judgment and argues that, pending further study, we have no reason to accept it.

It therefore includes texts and studies about the literary, historical, cultural, and religious milieu of Lollardy as well as texts specifically about the heresy itself. [Birgitta was canonized in 1391 when the Lollard movement was heating up, but the paper mostly concerns the defenses of Birgitta by Mathias of Linköping and Alfonso of Jaén.] Emblom, Margaret. [This study is especially interesting for the detailed descriptions it gives of women and the reading communities they belonged to. “Lollardy and Late Medieval History.” Bose and Hornbeck 121-134. “Žižka’s Drum: The Political Uses of Popular Religion.” . With reference to select sermons, the Lanterne of Liȝt, and the trial of John Falks, the essay explores the potential for “new formalism” to complement and enrich the historical study of Lollardy.] Gellrich, Jesse. Analyzing the interrogations of Margery Kempe, Anne Askew, Marian Protestant women, Margaret Clitherow, and Quakers Katherine Evans and Sarah Cheevers, the book examines the complex dynamics of women’s writing, preaching, and authorship under separate regimes of religious persecution and censorship.”] —. [According to the abstract, this study “tells the story of early modern women’s preaching: how it was suppressed, and the unexpected places where it broke out. [“A governing argument of this chapter will be that the spheres of academic speculation and extra-mural religiosity across a range of social classes affected each other in ways that disable” a traditional polarity between what have been term an academic “Wycliffism” and a popular “lollardy” outside of the university. “Wycliffite ‘Affiliations’: Some Intellectual-Historical Perspectives.” Bose and Hornbeck 13-32. “Texts for a Poor Church: John Wyclif and the Decretals.” 20.1 (Feb. [This article focuses on papal decretals and English religious reformer John Wyclif’s views on it. A final chapter, which includes analyses of works by Chaucer, Hoccleve, and related writers, proposes far-reaching revisions to current histories of the arts of composition in medieval England.”] Scattergood, V. (on 50-54) in which Cole, dating the text to the mid- to late 1380s, argues that it comprises part of the contemporary re-invention of lollardy. Probably direct influence cannot be proven, but at least there is a striking parallelism between Martynas Mažvydas and John Wycliffe in the rendering of the Decalogue.” Schmalsteig examines this parallelism via a linguistic analysis.] Schofield, A. It differs from other studies by arguing that the subject cannot be understood simply by asking theological questions about people’s beliefs, but must be understood by asking political questions about how they negotiated with state power. Šmahel gives an annotated list of the various earliest manuscripts of official . It is certainly true that Wyclif is extremely vocal and insistent about his realism, but it is not obvious that the actual content of his view is especially extreme. “Penances Imposed on Kentish Lollards by Archbishop Warham 1511-12.” Aston and Richmond 229-249.

In particular, it discusses Jakob Wimpheling’s prefatory material to his edition of a medieval classic, Petrus Aureolus’s (1319), which is subtle and discriminating in its appreciation of the Ciceronian and Augustinian strands of Aureolus’s scholarship. an attempt to establish and unite a community of readers around his books, to influence and thus change the ways they understand their faith, the world, and their place in it. Broadly speaking, he gleans vernacular terms and arguments of recent coinage that represent valued practices within a community of practitioners who have distinguished themselves, for better and for worse, as innovators in English. “Childhood, Pedagogy, and the Literal Sense: From Late Antiquity to the Lollard Heretical Classroom.” Scase, Copeland, and Lawton 125-156. “Toward a Social Genealogy of Translation Theory: Classical Property Law and Lollard Property Reform.” Beer 173-183. “Sophistic, Spectrality, Iconoclasm.” Dimmick, Simpson, and Zeeman 112-130. He wants to examine these three topics together because “they all speak to those criteria which are essential for constituting a genuine pope as opposed to a mere pretender” (141). Rather than being a simple tale of heresy and orthodoxy, therefore, this late medieval conflict turned on the question of professional expertise, rights and responsibilities.”] —. The book describes a progression through chapters on Wyclif, Woodford, Netter, Hussite controversies, and Gerson.] —. The Lollard Attribution of the ‘Diuers treateses of Joh. Furthermore, they developed the metaphor in a new way that provided a positive alternative for the illiterate, arguing that the simple and unlearned read not from the book of art but rather from the natural world around them.”] —. “Hot Literacy in Cold Societies: A Comparative Study of the Sacred Power of Writing.” , and Walter Brut’s self-defense at his trial–to “explore the cultural implications of the apocalyptic political expectations and geography” which they exemplify (96). It is argued that the structural and textual development of the tables testifies to a gradual loss of Wycliffite ideological control over the use and design of the English tables of lections. ) Production Under the Looking Glass: The Case of Columbia University, Plimpton Add. Note that much recent work building on Peterson has been published by, especially, Siegfried Wenzel. “Le Prédications Popularies: Les Lollards et le soulèvement des travailleurs angalis en 1381.” demonstrates that Chaucer is very attentive to contemporary political debates. “A New Language of Authority: The Growth of Vernacular Religious Literacy in England during the Later Middle Ages.” Ph D diss. This subjectivity, which makes the Tale similar to other contemporary mystical and devotional texts, defines its distinct vernacularity in contrast to contemporary Lollard texts. “The World Made Flesh: Wycliffite Hermeneutics, Pedagogy, and Polemic.” Ph. This dissertation seeks to examine and describe just such a context, focusing not so much on Wycliffite activity as it does on the rationale that undergirds that activity. “Devotional Literature and Lay Spiritual Authority: Imitatio Clerici in . She notes that at the time that these models were being developed in the later fourteenth century Wyclif was critiquing the traditional orders and “advocated a radical form of identity between lay and priestly practice” (xii). Her conclusion considers several fifteenth-century manuscripts containing these works to show how later compilers envisioned the use of these texts in the wake of Arundel.] Richardson, H.

Wimpheling’s defence of scholastic dialectic was grounded in what he believed to be dialectical tactics used by Christ, St. [Abstract: “Campbell argues that Pecock’s fascinating attempt to educate the laity is . The aim of Pecock’s educational project is to harness the power of texts to effect religious change. This is, in other words, Chaucer aligning himself with his contemporaries in ways quite different from both his crypto-, but mostly passive-aggressive, gestures toward Gower or Langland and from his curt and jocund references to “Lollere[s],” the contemporary pejorative term for Wycliffites. [Cole connects Wycliffism with the early humanists, using the term “ecclesiastical humanism” to “account for some of the institutional settings within which humanist activity flourished after new classical texts from the continent began to circulate in England in the first quarter of the fifteenth century” (426). [Copeland explores accusations of “sophistry” leveled by Wyclif and Lollards against their opponents, describing the academic erudition behind the accusation while also noting how it positions them as academic outsiders.] —. The General Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible and Augustine’s prologue to the short exposition on Matthew to illustrate the emphasis lollards placed on educating the laity to read and interpret scripture.] Corbellini, Sabrina. According to Levy, Wyclif “derided a corrupt electoral process only to put forward an almost mystical procedure in its place. “The Literal Sense of Scripture and the Search for Truth in the Late Middle Ages.” Revue D’histoire Ecclésiastique 104.3-4 (2009): 783-827. [Compares ways that Chaucer depicts the Pardoner as a “false prophet” with ways that he studiously avoids letting the Parson be labeled as one; both depictions are haunted by the shadow of lollardy.] Mc Cue, James F. “The Dissemination of Wyclif’s Ideas.” Hudson and Wilks 361-68. “De Heretico Comburendo, 1401.” Aston and Richmond 112-126. “John Scarle: Ambition and Politics in the Late Medieval Church.” Clark, Jurkowski, and Richmond 68-93. – in terms of their literary form, content and appeal rather than their relationship to Rolle’s biography. [“Discusses the boundaries between heresy and orthodoxy in England during the late Lollard period. wiclife in English’ (John Rylands Library, English MS 85).” 83.1 (2001): 89-102. “The perfect ‘sumtyme,’ the ‘nowe’ time and the ‘ende’ time: The Driving Force Behind Lollard Reformism? “Lollard Language in the Croxton Play of the Sacrament.” 13 (2003): 359-70. “The Illustrations of Corpus Christi College MS 32: ‘Þe glose in Englissche Tunge.'” Clark, Jurkowski, and Richmond 37-67. Her examination of Brut argues that he “uses the new idea of history that emerges from this crisis [of the impossibility of secular, linear historical writing demonstrated in the considers how the surviving English theatrical works of the fifteenth century represent competing practices of interpretation. A previously unpublished Wucliffite texts related to his qustion is included in appendix B.” The text in Appendix B is from BL Egerton 618, ff. Such attention to contemporary buzzwords and sociolects in his poetry moves readers beyond merely an ironic Chaucer, in which we read him for the “false surface and the underlying (ironic) truth” (102). The essay argues that Chaucer’s depiction the seemingly Lollard characteristics which surround the Parson can be best clarified by making more precisely clear the linguistic mode of the “vernacular.” The contrast between the tale’s content and context makes it the most vivid example of Chaucer’s argument for the possibility of a vernacular that might carry linguistic authority.] Plumb, Derek. I will argue that Wycliffite theory regarding the eucharist is the exegetical key to understanding their approach to pedagogical and polemical practice and to understanding the response of the church to Wycliffite heterodoxy, for it represents a fundamental point of conflict between Wycliffite and orthodox ideology.

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Aside from the Paston Letters and the Peterborough Chronicle, he examines Lollard texts for “to,” “for to,” and “null” methods of infinitive complement marking, finding that the Wycliffite group developed a distinctive and normative language use that excluded “for to” in many of its functions.] Bernard, P. “Heresy in 14th Century Austria.” 40.3 (2010): 439-61. Clopper contends that critics have misrepresented Western stage history because they have assumed that theatrum designates a place where drama is performed. [Crassons’ essay “argues that the Wycliffite sermon of William Taylor presents seemingly contradictory arguments about the role of poverty work, and charity within Christian society. [Craun demonstrates how Lollards adapted a pastoral discourse on fraternal correction to validate their criticisms of the contemporary church, especially those directed at friars. “Die Beziehungen John Wiclifs und der Lollarden zu den Bettelmönchen.” [“The relationship of John Wyclif and the Lollards with the Mendicant Friars.”] Dissertation. ‘Everything was done by him and nothing was done without him’ wrote the contemporary chronicler, Jean Froissart. Wyclif actually bears comparison to two other fourteenth-century critics: Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham. “William Langland’s ‘Kynde Name’: Authorial Signature and Social Identity in Late Fourteenth Century England.” Lee Patterson, ed. [According to the abstract, “The exact relationship between Lollardy and the sixteenth-century Reformation long has eluded students of English history. Peikola investigates exceptions to this, asking how and why a more personal voice arises, how often it happens, and what it can tell us about the “situational context of texts.” He approaches this linguistically, examining texts for specific lexical markers (first person pronouns, specific verb forms, exclamations) which indicate a self-consciously subjective voice, and examining the distribution of these markers. “The Sanctorale, Thomas of Woodstock’s English Bible, and the Orthodox Appropriation of Wycliffite Tables of Lessons.” Bose and Hornbeck 153-174. “Die Bedeutung Wiclefs für die Theologie der Böhmen.” . [Though Lollardy is not the topic of Peters’ book, its later medieval context is. [Discussing especially the Bible, Robertson takes advantage of post-colonial theory “to analyze how English began to assert itself as a fit medium for intellectual work in late medieval Britain.

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